Calgary Geotechnical Society

Events


Welcome to the 2013–2014 lecture series!

The regular lecture series is held at the Austrian Canadian Cultural Centre at 3112 11th Street NE, Calgary. (See map here).
There is parking available either at the ACC or on-street.
The talks are held either in the upstairs hall or downstairs – doors on the west side of the building.
Lectures are free to attend unless stated otherwise.

Date Tuesday May 27, 2014
EventMay – Calgary and National Reports, CyGS Awards and Lecture
LocationAustrian Canadian Cultural Centre, 3112 - 11 Street NE, Calgary
Time 5:45 pm – 6:00 pm: Registration and Cash Bar
6:00 pm – 6:30 pm: Buffet Dinner and Wine
6:30 pm – 7:00 pm: Calgary and National Reports, Presentation of CyGS Awards
7:00 pm – 8:00 pm: Lecture
Speakers Bill Chin, M. Eng., P.Eng., Principal of Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd.
  Bill is senior geotechnical engineer with over 35 years of experience in the investigation, design, construction and safety evaluations of major earthfill dams for tailings and storage, as well as for foundations of large industrial buildings. His geotechnical practice extends over several industry sectors, including water resources, mining, oil sands, hydroelectric and pulp and paper mills. He has worked throughout Canada and worldwide, including the United States, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Chile, Philippines, New Caledonia, St. Lucia, South Africa, Romania and Indonesia.
His fields of particular expertise include dam engineering, mine tailings and mine waste management, foundation engineering, slope stability, seepage analyses, liquefaction analyses, stress-deformation modelling, instrumentation and performance monitoring of earth structures, and risk assessments.
Topic Keeping the "Artistic Flame" Alive in Geotechnical Engineering – A Personal Perspective
Abstract It is commonly accepted that geotechnical engineering is as much an art as it is a science. The "science" part is pretty straight...
  forward. It implies a systematic and organized approach to problem solving based on mathematical equations. There is a certain "order of things" and a "step-by-step" mentality to the process. The "art" part, on the other hand, is much more abstract and its essence can be more difficult to grasp. Yet, it is the "art" side that is the allure of geotechnical engineering, and is the romantic charm behind the science that inspires creativity and innovation.
The presentation is a compilation of the presenter's thoughts and perspectives on the artistic side of geotechnical engineering, and puts forth an appeal to future generations of geotechnical engineers to keep the "artistic flame" alive in the midst of ever-increasing advances in computing and analytical capabilities that keep fueling the "science".
Sponsors Mobile Augers and Research Ltd.
Cost $40 per person; full-time students are free of charge.
Pay at the door by cash or cheque only; pre-registration is required.
RSVP By email to this email or phone 403-532-5692 by Thursday May 22, 2014.
Please include your company name, phone number and indicate any dietary restrictions.

Date Tuesday May 06, 2014
EventMay – Spring Cross Canada Lecture Tour (CCLT)
LocationAustrian Canadian Cultural Centre, 3112 - 11 Street NE, Calgary
Time 11:45 am – 12:00 pm: Registration and Cash Bar
12:00 pm – 12:25 pm: Buffet Lunch
12:25 pm – 13:30 pm: Presentation
Speakers James (Jim) Graham, Ph.D., D.Sc., FEIC, P.Eng., University of Manitoba
  Jim Graham holds Ph.D. and D.Sc. degrees from Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland. He is a Fellow of the Engineering Institute of Canada, and a Professional Engineer in the Province of Manitoba. He has been Scientific Editor of the Canadian Geotechnical Journal; and President and Secretary General of the Canadian Geotechnical Society. He is currently Professor Emeritus, in the Civil Engineering Department, University of Manitoba. Dr. Graham has received awards from the Engineering Institute of Canada, the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers, the University of Manitoba, and the R.F. Legget Medal from the Canadian Geotechnical Society. He has published over 200 articles on a wide range of topics in geotechnical engineering and has been a consultant for local engineering consultants.
Topic Seepage, Leaching and Embankment Instability – A Case Study
Abstract After they were heightened in the late 1940's, water retention dykes at a hydroelectric generating station in south-eastern...
  Manitoba experienced irregular instabilities over many years. Samples from an unstable section of dyke showed considerable reductions in gypsum content and increased brittleness compared with those of neighbouring unloaded clay. The samples also showed that lowering the content of gypsum reduced the sizes of yield loci and the strains required for strain-softening to occur. These observations and the time-dependent nature of the problem suggest that seepage beneath the dyke leached natural cementation from the foundation clay and changed its behaviour.
Stress-deformation modelling indicated the clay had yielded during initial construction and again when the dykes were heightened. Seepage from the forebay occurred at different rates in different locations through irregular sand/silt partings that are generally present in pro-glacial clays. Leaching and strain softening were therefore also irregular. Leaching led to reduction in the size of the yield loci and therefore increased the volume of soil that yielded under loading from the dyke. In slope stability modeling, excess pore water pressures arising from time-dependent brittleness were sufficient to cause instability of the dykes.
Man, A., Graham, J., and Blatz, J. 2011. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 43: 473-493.
Organizer Canadian Geotechnical Society
Funding Canadian Foundation for Geotechnique
Sponsors BGC Engineering Inc.
MEG Consulting Limited
Tetra Tech Inc.
DYWIDAG-Systems International (DSI).
Cost $40 per person; full-time students are free of charge.
Pay at the door by cash or cheque only; pre-registration is required.
RSVP By email to CCLT@cgygeosociety.org or phone 403-532-5692 by Thursday May 1, 2014.
Please include your company name, phone number and indicate any dietary restrictions.

Date Thursday March 13, 2014
EventMarch – Regular Series Lecture
LocationAustrian Canadian Cultural Centre, 3112 - 11 Street NE, Calgary
Time 5:30 – 6:00 pm: Cash Bar and Light Snacks
6:00 – 7:00 pm: Presentation
Speakers Angela G. Kupper, Ph.D., P.Eng., BGC Engineering Inc.
  Dr. Angela Küpper has more than 30 years of experience in geotechnical engineering. She graduated in Civil Engineering in 1979. She worked in consulting in Brazil where she was mainly involved with hydroelectric dam projects throughout South America and with natural slope assessments and remediation. Angela obtained an M.Sc. in Geotechnical Engineering in 1983 studying constitutive models for a tropical clay for tunnelling projects. Angela obtained a Ph.D. in Geotechnical Engineering from the University of Alberta in 1991 on the topic of design and construction of hydraulic fills and tailings dams. She spent a couple of seasons at Syncrude as part of her research. Since then, Angela has worked in all aspects of dam engineering, in slope stability and remediation, landfills, pulp and paper, risk assessments, and many mining projects (pitwall design, tailings management technologies, design and construction of tailings dams, waste dump design, mine closure). She has been in charge of large multidisciplinary projects in North America, South America and Africa. Angela has been in independent review capacities and reviews boards for several clients in Canada and internationally. She has also participated in several professional committees and societies (including being a past President of the GSE). She is currently Vice President Technical of the Canadian Geotechnical Society. She has received several awards, including the Stanley Thompson Award of the Geotechnical Society of Edmonton (2010) and being selected as the 2011 Industry Lecturer for the ASCE/University of California Berkeley Geo-Engineering Distinguished Lecture Series.
Topic Travers Dam Rehabilitation Project
Abstract Travers Dam is an important irrigation and water supply earthfill dam in southern Alberta. Travers Dam is a 45 m high zoned...
  earthfill dam designed and built in the late 1940's/early 1950's. The work to upgrade Travers Dam to current standards included various elements. The rehabilitation of the Abandoned Diversion Conduit (ADC), placed at the bottom of the dam for river diversion during construction, is the focus of this presentation.
Compaction grouting, a technique typically used to add support to problem foundations, raise sunken structures or provide in situ compaction to soils, was adopted to successfully infill the Abandoned Diversion Conduit (ADC) while displacing/compacting the soft sediment at the bottom of the ADC and, importantly, to add a filter material to a critical location in the dam structure in order to mitigate the risk of internal erosion. No chemicals or cementitious materials were used in the grout infilling program. The innovation could be used in future projects to prevent erosion and extend the life of the dam infrastructure.
The Travers Dam Rehabilitation Project won the 2013 Minister's Award of Excellence in Technical Innovation.
CostFree
RSVPNot Required

Date Thursday February 13, 2014
EventFebruary – Regular Series Lecture
LocationAustrian Canadian Cultural Centre, 3112 - 11 Street NE, Calgary
Time 5:30 – 6:00 pm: Cash Bar and Light Snacks
6:00 – 7:00 pm: Presentation
Speakers Mike Jefferies, P.Eng., Golder Associates.
  Mike is a civil engineer with 35 years of experience, mostly in consulting but ten years of that with "owner" companies. It was this ten years with owners, and in the Canadian Arctic with Gulf Canada Resources in particular, that provided an enormous opportunity to "push the envelope" and which led to the most significant of his contributions to engineering (or, more accurately, engineering science).
A keynote speaker at international conferences on Arctic offshore engineering, hydraulic fill construction, and liquefaction, Mike has published some seventy-five papers ranging across ice loading of offshore platforms through to rock fracture grouting. But he is generally most known for the state parameter approach to soil characterization - an approach that has become one of the most cited innovations of the past twenty-five years of geotechnical engineering. The state parameter work led to an invitation to write a book on soil liquefaction, now sold-out with a second edition pending. As will be evident from a quick glance at the book, Mike is an exponent of the heresy that geotechnical engineering must be based on applied mechanics, not geology, and that the critical state is fundamental, readily measurable, unique, and something every geotechnical engineer should appreciate.
Topic Critical State Soil Mechanics: 125 Years of History to Current Engineering Use
Abstract There is a widely held perception that 'critical state soil mechanics' relates to a particular model of soil behaviour put forward by...
  Cambridge University: "Cam Clay". This perception is wrong on many counts. This talk will discuss the history of the framework - which starts in 1885 - stepping through all the key developments (and avoiding mathematics to the maximum extent possible). Perhaps surprisingly, the mechanics owe at least as much to Cambridge, Massachusetts as Cambridge, England. This is not a trivial historical point as the Cam Clay model contains unnecessary idealizations that limit its ability to replicate real soil behaviour. The talk will move from history to a proper representation of the fundamentals of soil behaviour as captured in the NorSand model; it is also not a case of A vs B, as the Cam Clay framework remains as a special case of NorSand - that is, generalization allows us to move forward without abandoning things that have proved insightful. Of course, the finer points of theoretical soil mechanics is not much use to practical geotechnical engineers. the talk will therefore extend to consider how the understanding from general critical state theory (the state parameter approach) can be used without much more testing than good, current practice and its implementation within the FLAC modelling platform to allow simulation of leading edge geotechnical analysis (illustrated by examples from current projects). A particular feature of this talk is, that while the intellectual framework has been effectively a US/British university collaboration, it was Canadian consulting experience that provided the breakthrough to move the framework from intellectual curio to practically useful/important.
The talk will be a little more than an hour, and very much "ideas" not "the math"; for those who feel inspired, the presenter can provide an Excel worksheet illustrating how the math works, upon request.
CostFree
RSVPNot Required

Date Thursday January 16, 2014
EventJanuary – Regular Series Lecture
LocationAustrian Canadian Cultural Centre, 3112 - 11 Street NE, Calgary
Time 5:30 – 6:00 pm: Cash Bar and Light Snacks
6:00 – 7:00 pm: Presentation
Speakers Dennis E. Becker, Ph.D., FEIC, FCAE, P.Eng., Principal of Golder Associates Ltd.
  Dennis is a Senior Geotechnical Engineer and Principal of Golder Associates with more than 35 years of national and international experience on numerous large scale civil engineering and resource development projects. He has substantial experience with all aspects of geotechnical engineering, and has developed extensive and varied areas of expertise, including site characterization, foundations, stability of slopes and excavations, liquefaction potential evaluation, earthquake effects and seismic stability of earth dams and tailings management areas, soil-structure interaction, soft ground tunneling, ground improvement, specialized geotechnical analysis/modeling, and fundamental soil behaviour.
Dennis is active in many key engineering and professional societies, and maintains close liaison with universities. He is a registered professional engineer in the Provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Dennis was Chair of NSERC's Civil Engineering Grants Selection Committee, the Canadian Geotechnical Research Board, the Editor of the Canadian Geotechnical Journal, President of the Canadian Geotechnical Society, and Vice-President (North America) of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. In addition, Dennis was Co-Editor of the 4th Edition of the Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual that was published by the Canadian Geotechnical Society in 2006.
Throughout his career, Dennis has been recognized with various awards: the Canadian Geotechnical Colloquium, the G.G. Meyerhof Award, the EIC Canadian Pacific Railway Engineering Medal, the Calgary Geotechnical Society Award, the EIC Julian C. Smith Medal, and the R. F. Legget Medal. He has also been elected as Fellow of the Engineering Institute of Canada and of the Canadian Academy of Engineering.
Topic Lessons Learned To Date
Abstract Experiences from successes, failures, and the insight gained from the interactions with colleagues on projects and in the technical...
  community interpret into meaningful lessons learned. The presentation shares lessons learned to date by the presenter through his personal experiences over 35 years in his professional career. The recognition of uncertainty, risk management, technical expertise and effective communications are essential components in the geotechnical industry and business. The presentation shares technical information, experiences and insight gained from a large variety of projects, big and small, including the Confederation Bridge, Beaufort Sea, St. Clair River Tunnel, international mining projects, P3 transportation projects, and participation in national and international learned societies and technical committees. The presentation, at times, is a light-hearted talk and perspective that combines the technical and people sides of the geotechnical business and community.
CostFree
RSVPNot Required

Date Wednesday December 11, 2013
EventDecember – Regular Series Lecture
LocationAustrian Canadian Cultural Centre, 3112 - 11 Street NE, Calgary
Time 5:30 – 6:00 pm: Cash Bar and Light Snacks
6:00 – 7:00 pm: Presentation
Speakers Heinrich Heinz, P.Eng., Ph.D., Managing Director at Thurber Engineering Ltd.
  Heinrich is a senior geotechnical engineer with over 30 years of experience. He has specialized in tunnelling and trenchless technologies and has worked on numerous projects in Canada and abroad, ranging from small diameter sewer and water tunnels to large cross-section subway stations. He joined Thurber's Calgary office in 1995 and is currently the firm's Managing Director.
Topic Rock Tunnels in Calgary: A 100 Year Retrospective
Abstract The first rock tunnel in Calgary for which documentation is available was constructed in the early 1900s, using hand-excavation...
  techniques. During the past ten years, several others were constructed, as a component of various water and sewer projects throughout the City. In these modern tunnels, various types of Tunnel Boring Machines (TBMs) were used as the primary excavation method. The tunnels were typically about 2 m to 3 m in diameter, with a length ranging from 100 m to 900 m. Typical liner types were a precast concrete segmental (one pass) liner, or ribs and lagging initial support in combination with either a cast-in-place concrete final liner, or steel or fiberglass reinforced polymer mortar pipes, with a cellular grout filled annulus.
The presentation will review the geology and some of the geotechnical properties of Calgary's highly variable weak sedimentary bedrock with influence on tunnel design and performance. The performance of eight of these tunnels will be reviewed in terms of advance rates and delays as related to the variable bedrock properties and the choice of cutting tools. Some design assumptions and methods used in these projects will also be reviewed, as well as actual performance, with emphasis on some of the lessons learned.
CostFree
RSVPNot Required

Date Wednesday November 13, 2013
EventNovember – Regular Series Lecture
LocationAustrian Canadian Cultural Centre, 3112 - 11 Street NE, Calgary
Time 5:30 – 6:00 pm: Cash Bar and Light Snacks
6:00 – 7:00 pm: Presentation
Speakers Jim Oswell, PhD, Principal Consultant at Naviq Consulting Inc.
  Jim Oswell has practiced geotechnical engineering in western and northern Canada, and internationally for nearly 30 years. Many of these projects involve site investigations, laboratory testing, forensic analysis and evaluation and development of engineering study reports.
Dr. Oswell's primary expertise is in geotechnical issues related to pipelines and permafrost. Frequently, he has worked on pipelines in permafrost. He has senior consulting expertise on the following major pipeline projects in permafrost terrain: Mackenzie Gas Project, Norman Wells oil pipeline, Alaska North Slope Project, Denali Pipeline Project, Alaska Gas Project, Mohe-Daqing oil pipeline and Baydaratskaya Bay gas pipeline crossing.
In non-permafrost terrain, Jim has provided geotechnical engineering expertise on pipeline projects in Alberta, northern British Columbia, Russia, Mexico, Ecuador and Colombia. These projects have typically involved soil-pipe interaction studied and/or geohazard assessments.
Dr. Oswell has published over 30 technical conference and peer-reviewed journal papers, and was the keynote speaker at the 63rd Canadian Geotechnical Conference in Calgary. He is past chair of the Canadian National Committee of the International Permafrost Association and a past Vice President of the Canadian Geotechnical Society. He is presently an Associate Editor of the Canadian Geotechnical Journal.
Topic Several Case Histories of Pipeline Distress Induced by Landslides in South America
Abstract Those countries in South America that are mountainous have traditionally experienced much higher rates of pipeline incidents...
  caused by landslides than North America. The terrain and climatic conditions are two important factors that influence the negative interaction between slopes and pipelines.This presentation discusses several case histories in two South American countries where post-incident forensic investigations showed that landslides were the direct cause of the pipeline distress. In one unfortunate case, the loss of containment by the pipeline resulted in over 30 fatalities. The initial approach to the investigations and the subsequent geotechnical monitoring and results will be presented.
CostFree
RSVPNot Required

Date Friday October 18, 2013
EventFall Cross-Canada Lecture Tour (CCLT) 2013
LocationAustrian Canadian Cultural Centre
Time 11:45 am – 12:00 pm: Registration and Cash Bar
12:00 pm – 12:25 pm: Buffet Lunch
12:25 pm – 13:15 pm: Presentation
Speaker Edward Kavazanjian, Jr., Ph.D., P.E., D.GE, NAE, Professor, Arizona State University
  Edward Kavazanjian, Jr., Ph.D., P.E., D.GE, NAE, is the Ira A. Fulton Professor of Geotechnical Engineering in the School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, USA. He joined the faculty at Arizona State University in August 2004 after 20 years as a practicing geotechnical engineer. Prof. Kavazanjian has Bachelor and Master of Science degrees in Civil Engineering from M.I.T. and a Ph.D. in Geotechnical Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley.
Prof. Kavazanjian was elected to the US National Academy of Engineering in February 2013 in recognition of his work on design and construction of landfills and waste containment systems and on geotechnical earthquake engineering. Prof. Kavazanjian currently serves on the Board of Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR) of the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies of Science and Engineering as chair of the Committee on Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. He is a Past-President of the Board of Governors of the Geo-Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). He is recipient from ASCE of the 2009 Ralph B. Peck Award for his published case history contributions to landfill engineering, the 2010 Thomas A. Middlebrooks Award for his paper on Shear Strength of Municipal Solid Waste, and the 2011 Karl Terzaghi Award for his ASCE publications on the analysis, design and construction of waste containment systems.
He has delivered keynote addresses and state of the art papers on waste containment systems and landfill engineering at several international conferences and is co-author of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance document of RCRA Subtitle D (40CFR258) Seismic Design Guidance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facilities. Prof. Kavazanjian is also recognized for his work on geotechnical seismic design of transportation systems. He is lead author of the FHWA guidance document of LRFD Seismic Analysis and Design of Transportation Geotechnical Features and Structural Foundations. He is a registered Professional Engineer in Arizona, California, and Washington and has served as Engineer of Record on numerous landfill and waste containment projects.
Topic Geo-Alchemy: Turning Sand into Sandstone and other Microbiological and Bio-Inspired Ground Improvement Technologies
Abstract The application of microbiological and bio-inspired processes offers the potential for sustainable, cost effective, non-disruptive...
  ground improvement for a variety of geotechnical problems. Potentially beneficial applications of bio and bio-inspired processes include increasing the stiffness and shear strength of soil to enhance foundation bearing capacity, stabilize slopes and excavations, and facilitate tunneling in running and flowing sands, reducing the susceptibility of soil to earthquake-induced liquefaction, fugitive dust control, and reducing permeability for groundwater control. Microbiological and bio-inspired processes that can be potentially employed for these applications include mineral precipitation, gas generation, and growth of biofilms and biopolymers. Many of these processes are known to improve the engineering properties of soil on a geological time scale, and some of these processes are known to induce potentially beneficial effects in shorter time frames but in situations where the context renders these effects undesirable (e.g. clogging of well screens and treatment plant filters).
The engineering challenges in developing beneficial applications of these microbiological and bio-inspired ground improvement processes involve identifying and inducing the desired process over a time frame of engineering interest in the location of interest. Successful application of these processes depends on a variety of factors, including the goal of the process, soil type, the mechanism employed, depth below ground surface, interactions with microbes and chemicals present in the subsurface, pH, temperature, pressure, concentration of ions, and the availability of oxygen and other oxidants. Development of microbiological and bio-inspired ground improvement processes is an interdisciplinary endeavor that requires collaboration among microbiologists, chemists, geologists, and geotechnical engineers. Current research in biological and bio-inspired ground improvement includes induced carbonate precipitation in sands and silts to strengthen and stiffen soils, microbiological gas generation for mitigation of liquefaction potential, and carbonate precipitation and application of biopolymers for fugitive dust control.
Organizer Canadian Geotechnical Society
Funding Canadian Foundation for Geotechnique
Sponsors BGC Engineering Inc.
ConeTec Investigation Ltd.
EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd.
Golder Associates Ltd.
Cost $40 per person; full-time students are free of charge.
Pay at the door by cash or cheque only; pre-registration is required.
RSVP By email to CCLT@cgygeosociety.org or phone Hamid B. at 403-253-9217 Ext.108 by Tuesday October 15, 2013.
Please include your company name, phone number and indicate any dietary restrictions.

Date Wednesday September 18, 2013
EventSeptember – Regular Series Lecture
LocationAustrian Canadian Cultural Centre
Time 5:30 pm – Cash Bar
6:00 pm – Lecture
Speaker Ahmad Booshehrian, Ph.D. student, University of Calgary
Winner of the Calgary Geotechnical Society's 2013 Student Travel Award
  Ahmad is a PhD student in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta. The focus of his research is mostly on investigating effects of some mining activities on continues permafrost in Nunavut, Northern Canada.
Ahmad received his Bachelor degree in Civil Engineering at Sharif University of Technology in 2006, and completed his Master studies in Geotechnical Engineering at Sharif University of Technology in 2009. His PhD studies under the supervision of Dr. Richard Wan at the University of Calgary include numerical assessment of mining activities on the permafrost in the Kiggavik project in Nunavut.
The research includes investigation of both short and long term effects. During the operational time, the main focus was on the thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical effects of mining excavation and warm tailings impoundment in the open pits. While, for the long-term, thermal and hydraulic changes in the permafrost after mine closure due to deposited warm tailing and climate change are analyzed.
Topic Numerical Assessment of Potential Thermal Degradation of Permafrost in Northern Canada due to Open Pit Mining and Tailing Impoundment
Abstract The presence of permafrost and its susceptibility to naturally freeze and thaw under changes in the environment, whether natural...
  climate change) or anthropogenic (engineering activities), is one of the major concerns in cold regions such as in Northern Canada. In this paper, the potential thermal impact on permafrost due to surface mining activities at the proposed Kiggavik project in Nunavut, Canada, will be assessed. This project includes several open pit mines to extract the uranium ore from the frozen ground. After completion of excavation, warm tailings which are the result of mill processing will be deposited back into the open pits. These warm tailings will change the energy balance within the permafrost, potentially resulting in thawing of frozen ground and formation of taliks beneath tailing ponds with time.
In order to study the thermal behaviour of permafrost, a finite element based heat flow model with phase change in porous media was developed. The model was first calibrated against subsurface temperature data collected over the past several years in boreholes near the site penetrating completely into the permafrost. Thus, both active layer and sub-permafrost conditions were characterized. In this exercise, climate data was also used to determine the interaction of the air temperature with the ground through appropriate freezing and thawing n-factors. Then, a fourteen-year, multistep numerical study of the open pits capturing detailed excavation and tailing impoundment stages was conducted to assess potential thermal degradation in the underlying permafrost layer. The transient heat simulations were conducted using the calibrated n-factors to determine the ground temperatures, whereas tailings material was assumed to be placed at a temperature of 10°C. Other material properties involved were ice/water contents, rock porosity, and thermal conductivity as well latent heat values. Results of the computed transient thermal and flow regimes will be discussed in the full paper to assess the impact of warm tailings on the frozen ground.
CostFree
RSVPNot Required